Periodontitis is a long-term pathological inflammatory process that occurs in the supporting periodontium tooth apparatus: in gum tissue, periodontium, as well as in alveolar bone tissue
processes of the jaw and cementum.

Late or absent treatment of periodontitis of the gums can cause atrophy of bone tissue, the final stage of which is tooth loss units Inflammation of the gums, periodontitis, is classified according to two features.

First of all, by place development of the inflammatory process:
1. Localized periodontitis – characterized by a small lesion, which affects no more than one tooth (most often occurs due to mechanical damage to the mucous membrane);
2. Generalized periodontitis – the lesion affects several teeth at once, as well as can affect bone and gum tissue.
Periodontitis is also determined by the course of the disease:
1. Acute periodontitis – accompanied by periodic attacks of pain and rapid progression of symptoms;
2. Chronic periodontitis – develops against the background of untreated acute periodontitis
periodontitis, while pain sensations are practically absent, but the disease progresses and provokes tissue deformation.
Causes of periodontitis
One of the main causes of periodontitis can be considered quality neglect and proper oral hygiene, as well as lack of timely treatment inflamed gums.
Among other reasons that can provoke different stages of periodontitis, it is possible highlight such as:
● genetic predisposition;
● predominance of soft food in the daily diet;
● chewing with only one side of the jaw;
● bite anomalies;
● lack of B and C vitamins in the body;
● increased load on the gums after removal of chewing teeth;
● tartar build-up;
● excessive use of sugar and sweet products;
● smoking, chewing tobacco.

Effective treatment of gums and minimization of harmful consequences for teeth are possible only with
timely detection of inflammation and referral to a dental clinic. If available bleeding, inflammation or swelling of the gums, you should contact your doctor as soon as possible a specialist

How is periodontitis treated?
Regardless of age, standard methods of periodontitis treatment are carried out complex and include the following mandatory stages:
1. Eliminating the cause of inflammation
At this stage, professional teeth cleaning is performed: removal of soft deposits, calculus, polishing of dental crowns. All are necessarily eliminated factors that provoke the development of the disease. Carious formations are treated and filled, in case of severe damage, the tooth can be removed. If ignited clear, what to treat? The dentist gives the patient clear guidance on medication
treatment and care of the oral cavity.
2. Surgical treatment of periodontal tissues
The dentist can resort to such methods as curettage of periodontal pockets, partial removal of the edge of the gingival pocket, subgingival scaling, etc.
3. Additional measures
If there are indications, the specialist can prescribe the patient an appointment
anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins, immunomodulators, as well as give recommendations with
A specific treatment strategy is developed individually based on the condition the patient’s gums and the general health of his body. It is worth understanding that in what way and why only a doctor can determine what means of treatment will be used a dentist, and self-medication at home should be unacceptable.
With such a disease as periodontitis, there should be treatment at home agreed with the dentist. Rinsing can be prescribed, for example, with a decoction oak bark, a solution of tinctures of calendula or chamomile. In the presence of allergies reactions, it is best to resort to the help of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents solutions sold in pharmacies.

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3D printing in dentistry: where it is used, how it works, advantages over traditional methods for the patient

A modern 3D printer can print just about anything: houses, cars, prostheses, and more. Not surprisingly, this unique technology has made its way into the field of dentistry, where it has revolutionized orthopedic treatment.

The first attempts to introduce 3D printing in dentistry were made in the 90s by Align Technology. Using a 3D printer, the company produced mouthguards for straightening teeth, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of this technology in the field of dentistry. Thanks to modern equipment and its capabilities, a fundamentally new method of manufacturing artificial orthopedic systems has appeared: prostheses, crowns, implants, etc.

However, the development of this technology was not so fast: it took about 20 years to achieve high print quality and optimize work according to current treatment protocols. In 2012, the first implant was printed by Layer Wise. In the same year, the first successful implantation of a mandible made of titanium, completely printed on a 3D printer, was performed on a patient. After that, the technology began to develop rapidly and improve in quality from year to year.

Features of the use of 3D printing technology in a dental laboratory

In the traditional dental method of prosthetics, plaster casts are used. The formation and manufacture of such an impression is carried out in several stages, and also requires many related adjustments and adjustments.

With the help of a dental 3D scanner, it is possible to create the most accurate and detailed model of the patient’s dentoalveolar system. The equipment simulates the entire oral cavity without any discomfort for the person. After obtaining a full-fledged three-dimensional model, it can be divided into separate elements of the required size in a special editor.

Ultimately, a dental 3D printer prints a finished model of a prosthesis made of polymers or metal. The finished product fully corresponds to the individual parameters of the patient, does not require additional adjustment and fitting, which significantly speeds up the treatment process.

Benefits of using 3D printing technologies in dentistry

A modern dental 3D printer is capable of producing high-quality and durable models of crowns, veneers, bridges and other orthopedic structures. This significantly speeds up and facilitates the work of the dental laboratory: thanks to the wide range of materials, any task can be solved in the shortest possible time. In just one session, a 3D printer is able to print a fairly large number of necessary products. All three-dimensional models are stored in files, which allows you to re-produce a similar design in the future.

The patient no longer has to wait 2-3 days for a plaster model to be made. With the help of modern technology, everything happens faster: using an intraoral scanner, the doctor can create a three-dimensional model of the oral cavity in just a few minutes and send it to the laboratory where it will be printed. Maximum precision and speed make treatment more efficient, comfortable, fast and economical.

What can be printed on a dental 3D printer?

Among the most popular areas that have a demand for the use of 3D printing technology, the following designs can be distinguished that can be printed:

  • individual mouthguards for teeth alignment, guides for maxillofacial surgery; surgical templates for implantation;
  • clasp prostheses, crowns, bridges;
  • collapsible and demonstration models of jaws, sectoral reproduction of jaws in occlusion, etc.

In addition, there is such a promising direction, which is now actively developing, as the printing of temporary and permanent orthopedic structures, as well as bases for removable dentures.

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Tooth extraction: how is the preparation for tooth extraction?

Tooth extraction is a surgical operation, in which by means of mechanical impact on
dissection is performed using a special dental tool,
delamination and rupture of soft tissue structures, as a result of which the tooth is extracted from
alveolar hole.
In dental practice, there are specific indications that determine the need
tooth extraction The main task is to prevent the development of the inflammatory process,
loss of adjacent teeth, as well as general infection of the body.

What teeth are removed?

Tooth extraction surgery is indicated for the following conditions:

● correction of bite anomalies, when certain dental units interfere with others, and
also before installing an orthodontic device (wisdom tooth removal);
● incorrect position of the crown, which leads to traumatization of the surface
cheeks or tongue;
● purulent formations (cyst on the top of the root, flux);
● tooth mobility of 3 or 4 degrees;
● significant damage to periodontal tissues;
● pulpitis in an advanced stage;
● tooth fracture;
● complete destruction of the crown and root.

The dentist makes the final verdict on the expediency of tooth extraction during the examination
and X-ray diagnostics. If there is even a small chance of recovery,
the specialist will resort to a tooth-conserving approach, which is the basis
dental treatment.
During the diagnosis, a decision may be made about the need for such a procedure as
resection of the apex of the tooth. This is also a surgical procedure, during which from the top of the root
foci of the spread of infection are removed from the tooth. Simply put, the focus of chronic
infections are opened, cleaned, cut, disinfected and then placed
seal on the top of the root. The main task of resection is to preserve the integrity and
tooth functionality.

How is the preparation for tooth extraction?

Since tooth extraction is a surgical intervention, the procedure must be taken seriously
to prepare Only in this way will it be possible to transfer all manipulations with
minimal risk of complications. At the preparatory stage should be done
x-ray, which allows you to see the shape and size of the roots of the tooth, as well as determine
localization of inflammation. If inflammatory processes are detected, preliminary treatment will be prescribed. Tooth extraction in dentistry will be carried out only after
stopping inflammation.
A couple of hours before the operation, the patient is recommended to carry out premedication with
using sedatives that will help increase the effectiveness of local
anesthesia A day or two before removal, you should stop drinking alcohol.

How is a tooth removed?

The tooth extraction operation takes an average of 5-20 minutes (not including the operation
anesthesia) and takes place in several stages:
1. Administration of local painkillers;
2. Separation of the gums from the crown of the tooth to avoid accidental
injury to mucous membranes;
3. Loosening and removing the diseased tooth with the help of a special tool.
If the tooth has crooked roots, the crown is pre-sawed into fragments for
their removal in parts;
4. Cleaning the hole in the presence of fragments;
5. Treatment with an antiseptic;
6. After tooth removal, the hole is pressed with a tampon or sutured
gums if necessary.

Removal of impacted wisdom tooth
Removal of impacted teeth is an extremely complex surgical operation. It predicts
removal of a tooth that has only partially erupted above the gums (on average by a third)
or has not erupted at all, but continues to grow in the wrong direction under the periosteum.
This procedure is carried out with the help of enhanced anesthesia, because there is more
traumatic and painful. Removal of a wisdom tooth begins with an incision in the gums at a point
carrying out the operation, after which the visible tooth tissue is sawed off and
fragmentation of the tooth into parts for further removal. After tooth extraction
the released alveolar hole is treated with an antiseptic and sutured.

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Dental fillings: indications for fillings, features of dental fillings, filling care.

Dental fillings are a direct restoration of damaged dental units, which is performed in the oral cavity with the help of special filling materials. This type of dental restoration involves restoring the integrity, functionality and aesthetics of the tooth crown. The main goal of the dentist is to seal the tooth in such a way as to achieve the maximum conformity of the restored crown to its natural shape while preserving the natural relief.

Indications for sealing

The damaged tooth is subject to filling in the following cases:

mechanical damage to the crown, which does not affect the root (broken enamel, broken a piece of tooth, etc.);
tooth decay;
destruction of enamel.

As a prevention of caries in children, a procedure such as sealing the fissures may be indicated. It involves overlapping the recesses on the teeth with a special filling material. This helps prevent the formation and development of caries on covered areas. It is recommended to seal as soon as possible, immediately after the child’s teeth have erupted. Due to this, caries treatment will be needed much less often.

Features of dental fillings

Today, aesthetic and effective fillings are the result of the introduction of innovative filling materials. Depending on the degree and nature of the destruction of the crown, as well as a number of functional requirements, in dental practice, the following materials are used for filling:

composite materials;
glass ionomer cements;
compomers (combination of glass inomers and polymers).

Restoration of teeth with fillings takes place in several stages. The first is the treatment of a damaged tooth, which thoroughly cleans the enamel from plaque and tartar, removes affected tissues, diagnoses the condition of the pulp, performs antimicrobial treatment of the oral cavity for more reliable fixation of filling material. Only then does the dentist make the material to install the filling.

If necessary, the nerve of the tooth is removed, periodontitis is treated and canals are filled. All manipulations are performed using local anesthesia. If a patient is diagnosed with deep caries without pulpitis, special tabs and insulating pads are used – they are placed in a cavity of the tooth cleaned of affected tissues and only then install a filling.

Advantages of direct restoration

Due to the use of high-tech equipment and modern filling materials, direct restoration of teeth by filling has many advantages:

minor intervention allows you to keep the tooth alive and extend its life;
high quality fillings, especially in dental clinics with their own dental laboratory;
the dentist can choose the shade of the filling material to match the natural color of the patient’s tooth crown;
restoration of health, integrity and functionality of the tooth in just one visit to the dental clinic;
the use of innovative high-strength materials with excellent adhesion makes direct restoration as hypoallergenic, safe and aesthetic as possible.

Even a large filling is able to maintain the viability of the crown of the tooth, because during the filling the natural dentition is preserved, as well as the metabolism between saliva and tooth tissue.

Seal care: recommendations

In order for the filling to last for a long time after filling the teeth, experts recommend strict adherence to the rules of oral hygiene. You should brush your teeth at least twice a day using a brush, rinse, dental floss or irrigator, as well as undergo professional brushing at the clinic every six months to prevent tartar formation. If you have a toothache after filling, you should see a dentist quickly.

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